By Filippo Cacace, Gianfranco Lamperti (auth.)
This quantity goals to provide contemporary advances in database expertise from the perspective of the radical database paradigms proposed within the final decade. It makes a speciality of the speculation of the prolonged relational version and an instance of a longer relational database programming language, Algres, is defined. A loose replica of Algres enhances this paintings, and is accessible on the net.
Audience: This paintings could be of curiosity to graduate scholars following complicated database classes, complex data-oriented purposes builders, and researchers within the box of database programming languages and software program engineering who want a versatile prototyping platform for the advance of software program instruments.
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Additional info for Advanced Relational Programming
An) and is a relation over the attributes (AI...... B = (A h+I • •••,An» containing the tuples obtained from the tuples in r by aggregating the tuples that have equal values on AI'" A h. L is the inverse of nest. Given a nested relation r and one of its complex attributes B. LB(r) ungroups the tuples of B, thus producing a flatter relation. Consider for example the problem of obtaining the flat version of the Dept nested relation. LEmployees(Dept» The instance produced by this expression is the (flat) relation shown in Figure 2-8.
A relation is in first-normal form if its attributes are elementary; that is, if their domain consists of atomic values, like integers or strings. F. Codd in his original proposal of the relational model as a desirable property because of its simplicity and the resulting uniformity of relations. The standard relational model that derived implicitly from this assumption is therefore a flat relational model. ,Ak: Dk) where each D; is an atomic domain. In the nested data model (also called non-firstnormal-form NFNF, NP or -,lNF) attribute values can be nested relations themselves, with unbounded depth.
This is accomplished through the introduction of two new algebraic operators, nest and unnest, defined later in this section, that allow creation and deletion of complex attributes starting from atomic domains. Actually, the first proposals on nested algebra had only these operators and did not discuss the extension of algebraic operators to the attribute level [132, 173, 270]. The -idea was that whenever relation-valued attributes are to be manipulated, one could first unnest, apply the standard relational operators and finally re-nest to obtain the desired result.