Royal Australian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force by Dr. Rene J. Francillon, Frank F. Smith

By Dr. Rene J. Francillon, Frank F. Smith

Royal Australian Air strength and Royal New Zealand Air strength within the Pacific КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Black and white images conceal the expansion of the RAAF from 536 wrestle airplane in December 1941 to hundreds of thousands of plane in 1945. all kinds are pointed out with serial numbers and devices. comparable assurance for the RNZAF. those air forces flew American, British, or even their very own in the community outfitted airplane. The campaigns opposed to the japanese took them from their local territory to New Guinea, Indonesia, and in other places within the southwest Pacific.Издательство: Aero Publishers, Inc.Серия: Aero Pictorials 3Страниц: 102Язык: английскийФормат: pdfРазмер: 37.11 Мб ifolder.ru zero

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W. n. Rule, plan, method … 2. Custom, habit… 3. Anything normal or usual… 4. Reason … 5. Meaning, purport… 6. ’ 13 For decades it has been customary to translate iwi into English as tribe and hapū as sub-tribe, implying that hapū are sub-divisions of and subordinate to iwi. This usage has wide currency among Māori themselves: for example, see Natural Resources Unit (Te Manatu Māori) 1991: 3. Since the 1970s, however, this usage has increasingly come under attack from scholars, who suggest on the basis of historical and linguistic research that the hapū was the key organisational group in Māori society until the mid nineteenth century and that iwi did not become fixed groups of paramount importance until late in the nineteenth century in the course of dealings with the Crown (Orbell 1978: 115-16; Metge 1986: 36-37; Ballara 1995).

10 In contemporary Māori usage the word is simply descriptive. If derogatory overtones are detected, they originate with the user, not the word itself. The frequent pairing of Māori and Pākehā indicates connection as well as contrast. The term European I reserve for visitors and temporary residents from the continent of Europe. I reject its application to New Zealand citizens of European origin because where they or their ancestors originated matters less than their commitment to Aotearoa New Zealand.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Over the years during which this book has been in preparation, a large number of Māori have contributed to the development of my understanding of the whānau. In the text I describe them as kai-whakaatu, people who have both informed and enlightened me. In deference to their own wishes, I shall not identify them individually by name but, speaking of and to them as a group, I record my warmest aroha and appreciation for the generosity with which they have admitted me to their family circles over the years, included me in their whānau gatherings, talked with me about their experience of whānau, and shared the insights gained from reflecting upon it.

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