By Mr Jack Brian
This ebook significantly examines the improvement and present constitution of ecu Union agri-environmental measures at a great point. interpreting the measures in an built-in demeanour, displaying how they interrelate linking various facets of eu Union agricultural legislations and coverage, this quantity examines the laws followed at ecu Union point in addition to the influence of specific nationwide measures to enforce that laws. the place acceptable, comparisons are drawn among the way during which ecu Union laws has been applied between quite a few Member States. severely assessing ecu Union and nationwide measures, within the mild of different coverage pressures corresponding to the effect of worldwide alternate agreements and the political pressures exerted by way of the rural area in the nationwide criminal structures of person Member States, this quantity is a useful source for lecturers studying and practitioners operating within the parts of ecu Union environmental and agricultural legislation.
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85 Ibid. Article 3(1). Additionally, it also included some regions designated as objective one areas under Regulation 2052/88 that no longer met these criteria. Under Article 6(1) of the 1999 Regulation these now identified as being ‘objective 1 regions in recovery’ and continued to be eligible to receive objective one funding until 31st December 2005. Both Northern Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland came into this category. 86 Ibid. Article 4. 87 Ibid. Article 5. 88 Consequently, a greater share of the Community’s rural development expenditure was been targeted towards Objective 1 areas.
Htm [last accessed 28 April 2008]. 97 Council Regulation 1698/2005 on rural development,  OJ L277/1, Article 70(3). 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid. 100 As it has from the outset, the Community continues to make only a partial contribution to the costs of operating its rural development policies. The practical impact of these policies has, therefore, been influenced by the degree to which Member States have been prepared to provide their own matched funding for these measures. 102 One example of the increased emphasis upon rural development policy spending has been the introduction of compulsory ‘modulation’, whereby Member States have been required to reduce the amount of direct payments made to farmers by a fixed percentage, with the monies generated being used to fund rural development measures.
1984), Agriculture and the Environment, (Cambridge: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology) 118. 20 The highest levels of hedgerow loss were generally experienced in areas of arable farming. In contrast, in areas which supported livestock farming, hedgerows provided shelter for livestock. In Ireland, both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, agriculture is predominantly based upon livestock farming. 22 However, many of these potential alternative habitats were also reclaimed for agricultural use.