By Guy Bradley
This publication, the 1st full-scale remedy of old Umbria in any language, takes a balanced view of the region's historical past within the first millennium BC, concentrating on neighborhood activities and motivations up to the influence of outdoor impacts and Roman rules.
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Extra info for Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era
Archaic Greece: New Approaches and New Evidence (London and Swansea, ), –. Umbria before the Roman conquest values, than a physical or institutional structure, represents a useful approach, and reminds us that we need to handle the evidence with care in order to trace these changes. 20 In fact, as we shall see, the signs of this process in Umbrian communities are spread over a considerable period. A ﬁrst possible symptom of change here might be the separation of an élite from the rest of society, visible through the deposition of prestige goods in graves from the seventh century onwards.
Approaching the history of Umbria understanding the consequences of Roman military domination is critically examined, looking at the concept both as a theoretical construct and through a detailed analysis of the latest evidence. In fact if Romanization is set into the context of the whole range of long-term changes that the Umbrians underwent in culture and identity, then a much more balanced picture of its importance is gained. Even in straightforward empirical terms the evidence for material culture shows that Umbria had long been heavily inﬂuenced by its neighbours, particularly the Etruscan cities to the west.
There seem to be two main possibilities. 69 However, this still leaves the Etruscan name, and it is easier to explain the designation of Interamna and Narnia as Umbrian in Livy and the Augustan regional divisions if we envisage that their Umbrian identity relates to a period before their colonization (in the early third century ) rather than after it. 70 Devoto, ‘Interpretazione umbre IV’, . Both peoples were considered to be of Illyrian origin: Poultney, Bronze Tables, . 68 See Ch. , ss.