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S–1 nominal gas flow rate. Two helium-based gas mixtures were used with the following impurity concentrations: 100 ppm H2, 50 ppm CH4 and ~7 ppm H2O, named Atmosphere 1, and 195 ppm H2, 55 ppm CO, 20 ppm CH4 and ~2 ppm H2O (no deliberate addition), named Atmosphere 2. Except for H2O content in the early stages of the exposure, the impurity contents are nearly the same at the reactor inlet and outlet. Figure 11 shows the weight variations at 750qC in both atmospheres. Cross-section micrograph observations and analyses show that all materials undergo a moderate oxidation except TZM, which does not react.
The experimental programme launched at CEA aims at qualifying this material for application in VHTR. Long-term high-temperature exposure tests are foreseen to assess its structural stability, and tensile and creep tests on aged specimens will evaluate the influence of the microstructural changes on the mechanical properties. The first results obtained on Haynes 230 confirm that this material could exhibit a higher creep resistance than the other reference materials and also have revealed a precipitation of carbides at 850qC which resulted in a certain reduction of ductility at room temperature.
Current challenges in writing material specification includes the need for appropriate measurement methods for determining fracture toughness, Weibull modulus, acceptable minimum flaw sizes and the NDE technique that will provide such information, and the lack of knowledge and model to predict irradiated properties under high fluences and temperatures expected in gas-cooled reactors. Therefore, new ASTM standards for properties measurements are being developed for nuclear graphites, including a recommended methodology for determining the Weibull modulus of nuclear-grade graphite.