Practical Statistics for Educators, 4th Edition by Ruth Ravid professor emerita National Louis University

By Ruth Ravid professor emerita National Louis University

Useful records for Educators, 4th variation makes a speciality of the applying of analysis and facts as utilized in particular to schooling. because the first version got here out in 1994, millions of scholars in academic records classes and their professors have chanced on it to be a good textbook. academic practitioners have additionally liked maintaining this publication on their reference shelf. Now in its fourth variation, this well-regarded textual content is a transparent and easy-to-follow guide to be used in introductory information or motion study classes. Ruth Ravid concentrates at the crucial options in academic information together with while to take advantage of quite a few statistical assessments and the way to interpret the implications. checking out and attempt rating interpretation, reliability, and validity are integrated to assist scholars comprehend those themes that are crucial for practitioners in schooling. Real-life examples, used generously all through, are taken from the sphere of schooling and awarded to demonstrate many of the techniques and phrases. bankruptcy previews and summaries, in addition to a word list of the most phrases and ideas, support readers navigate the ebook, specialize in crucial issues, and construct upon the information won from every one chapter.New during this version are up-to-date and more desirable photographs, revised and stronger textual content, and examples. long appendixes-tables are deleted and their appropriate sections are built-in into the chapters. targeted and intricate computational steps have additionally been eradicated.

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Extra resources for Practical Statistics for Educators, 4th Edition

Example text

In general, it is recommended that researchers try to obtain as large a sample as is feasible. A sample size of at least thirty cases or subjects is recommended in most studies in education. 2 Parametric statistics are applied to data from populations that meet the following assumptions: the variables being studied are measured on an interval or a ratio scale; individuals are randomly assigned to groups; the scores are normally distributed; and the variances of the groups being compared are similar.

In most experimental studies, when the hypothesis predicts differences in performance or behavior of experimental and control groups on the dependent variable, researchers are likely to use a directional hypothesis. In other words, they are quite certain that there will be a difference between the groups as a result of the intervention. In studies that investigate relationships between variables, directional hypotheses may predict whether the correlation will be positive or negative. A nondirectional hypothesis predicts that there will be a difference or relationship, but the direction of the difference or association is not specified.

This scale has the concept of less than or more than. For example, using grade point average (GPA) as a criterion, a student who is ranked tenth in the class has a higher GPA than a student that is ranked fiftieth. But we do not know how many points separate these two students. The same can be said about three medal winners in the long jump at the Olympic Games. It is clear that the gold medalist performed better than the silver medalist, who, in turn, did better than the bronze medalist. But we should not assume that the same number of inches separate the gold medalist from the silver medalist as those inches separating the silver medalist from the bronze medalist.

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